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SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF BURIED PIPELINES SUBJECTED TO NORMAL FAULT MOTION

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SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF BURIED PIPELINES SUBJECTED TO NORMAL FAULT MOTION

ABSTRACT:

The one of the critical elements in infrastructure of today's modern cities that cover large geographic distances is Network of buried pipelines. That is why they face a variety of natural hazards due to permanent ground replacements or wave emissions. Reports suggest that the main cause of damage to these lines is not seismic vibrations but large and permanent ground deformations are major causes of infrastructures' demolition. Most recent studies are related to lines crossing the strike-slip faults, and only a few researchers have tried to study the behavior of structures against the normal fault. This article discusses the behavior and response of structures and infrastructures against the movements of normal faults using the finite elements method. In this study, the interaction between soil-soil and soil-pipe has been considered in modeling terms.

 

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    • توسط admin
      Numerical simulation of seismic collapse mechanisms of vertically irregular steel high-rise buildings
      Reza Ramezani Azghandi a, Hamzeh Shakib a,⁎, Maedeh Zakersalehi b
      a Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
      b Niroo Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
      a b s t r a c t
      The effect ofmass and stiffness vertical irregularities on the collapse mechanismand resistance of steel high-rise
      structures is investigated using 3-D numerical simulations. Simulations are carried out utilizing a verified modelling
      approach in which the collapse processes of a regular and four irregular structures are studied under 11
      earthquake records. It is indicated that the utilized finite element model, related considerations and calibrations
      present a reliable and efficient technique for collapse simulation. The findings showthat vertical irregularities adversely
      affect the collapse resistance and mechanism of steel high-rise buildings. Especially, mass vertical irregularity
      with concentration in the lower half of the structure is the most vulnerable one; while the stiffness
      irregularity with distribution in the top and bottom parts of the structure is the least affecting one. Studying
      the simultaneous effect of frequency content and vertical irregularities shows that, generally, records with
      wide frequency content mostly reduce the collapse resistance of the structure and have no significant effect on
      the collapsemechanismof irregular structures in comparisonwith regular structure;while records with medium
      frequency content are most effective on the collapse mechanism.

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    • توسط admin
      Finite element evaluation of ultimate capacity of strip footing: assessment using various constitutive models and sensitivity analysis
      Abstract
      Finite element method can be used for computing bearing capacity of shallow foundation with irregular geometry resting on variable subsoil. It is necessary to quantify the parameters affecting the ultimate capacity of footing. This paper presents the results of finite element (FE) analysis of the ultimate failure load of a rough base rigid strip footing resting on c-ϕ soil. The soil is assumed as linear elastic perfectly plastic with Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion and non-associative flow rule. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to examine the ultimate capacity of strip footing considering the strength parameters (c′, ϕ′, and ψ), width of strip footing (B), unit weight of soil (γ), surcharge (q) at the base level of footing, and the deformation parameters (E and ν) as the variables. The study also examines the effect of different material models on the ultimate capacity of the strip footing. The material models considered are Mohr–Coulomb (MC) model, Hardening Soil (HS) model, Hardening Soil model with small-strain stiffness (HSsmall), and Soft Soil (SS) mode-l. It is found from the results of FE analysis that the ultimate load of the strip footing is dependent on the strength parameters, width of footing, unit weight of soil, and surcharge at the base level of the footing. The ultimate capacity is independent of the deformation parameters and will remain almost same corresponding to the material models like MC, HS, HSsmall, and SS. The FE results are compared with the analytical solutions of Terzaghi and Meyerhof. Based on the study, a few suggestions are given in regard
      to the FE analysis of geotechnical stability problems to obtain the quick results. 

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    • توسط admin
      The Effect of Shifting Natural Frequency on the Reduction of Vortex Induced Vibrations of Marine Risers

      Younes Komachi1, Said Mazaheri2*, Mohammad Reza Tabeshpour3
      1 Ph.D. Student, National Institute for Oceanography; y_komachi@yahoo.com
      2* Corresponding author: Assistant Professor, National Institute for Oceanography; said.mazaheri@inio.ac.ir
      3Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center of Excellence in Hydrodynamics and Dynamics
      of Marine Vehicles, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran; tabeshpour@sharif.edu
       
      ABSTRACT

      Many procedures suggest for reduction of responses of riser to Vortex Induced
      Vibrations (VIV). Natural frequencies of marine risers is an important
      parameter that can affect the responses of riser to VIV. Change of riser
      properties such as top tension and bending stiffness can alter natural
      frequencies. In this study effects of riser specifications on the responses and
      fatigue damage of marine risers were investigated analytically and
      numerically. For numerically analysis 2D wake-structure coupled model is
      used for modeling of VIV of riser in two directions of Cross Flow (CF) and In
      Line (IL). The wake dynamics, including IL and CF vibrations, is represented
      using a pair of non-linear Van der Pol equations that solved using modified
      Euler method. The Palmgren–Miner Rule is used for evaluation of fatigue
      damage. Riser of Amir-Kabir semisubmersible placed in Caspian sea is used
      for case study. Because VIV is self-limiting, it is showed that lower modes
      have lower curvature, that in some cases this is lead to lesser stress and also
      fatigue damage. The results show that for tension dominant modes of
      vibration, natural frequencies was increased with top tension and for a certain
      Strouhal frequency, dominant modes of vibration was reduced which leads to
      reduction of stress and fatigue damage. The results show that stress and
      fatigue damage increased with module of elasticity of riser and reduction of
      this leads to reducing of stress and fatigue damage. Therefore suitable
      procedure for reduction of VIV responses of riser should be selected based on
      the current velocity.
       
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    • توسط admin
      Free vibration analysisof soft-core composite-faced sandwich plates using three-dimensional finite element method

      Mohammad Mahdi Kheirikhah; Hasan Aghabarati; Pooneh Khosravi

      In this paper, natural frequencies of the sandwich plates with soft flexible core and composite face sheets are obtained. Three-Dimensional (3D) finite element method (FEM) is used for constructing and analyzing of the sandwich plates to obtain their natural frequencies. Continuity conditions for transverse shear stresses at the interfaces as well as transverse flexibility and transverse normal strain and stress of the core are considered.The effects of plate dimensions such as aspect ratio and thickness ratio are studied. Also, different boundary conditions such as all edges clamped (CCCC), all edges simply supported (SSSS) and combined boundary conditions including (CFCF)are applied to the sandwich plates. Comparison of the present results in special case with those of the accurate plate theories confirms the accuracy of the proposedmodel.


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    • توسط admin
      Slope Stability Analysis by Shear Strength Reduction Method.
      Farshidfar N., Nayeri A.
      J. Civil Eng. Urban., 5(1): 35-37, 2015; pii:S22520430150008-5
      Abstract
      This research uses the shear strength reduction method to study soil slopes stability. In this method shear strength is considered to be reduced as less as failure occurs. It uses Plaxis, which is capable of calculating deformations rates and safety factors by gaining geometry data of a problem and soil specifications and using the finite element method (FEM). The analysis is performed at both static and pseudo-static modes. The effects of different parameters on slopes stability are shown by performing several analyses. Finally, the analyses performed by this method are compared with the ones obtained by finite difference method (FDM).
      Keywords: Finite Differential Method, Finite Element Method, Limit Equilibrium Method, Shear Strength Reduction, Soil slopes, Plaxis, Pseudo-Static.
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